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    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a progressing lung injury initiated by pulmonary inflammation (PI). Bleomycin (BLM) is the most common pathogenesis of PF through early PI and extensive extracellular matrix deposition. This study is aimed to determine whether NO-releasing KMUP-1 inhibits PI and PF, and if so, the benefits of KMUP-1S resulted from simvastatin (SIM)-bonding to KMUP-1. C57BL/6 male mice were intra-tracheally administered BLM (4 U/kg) at day 0. KMUP-1 (1-5 mg/kg), KMUP-1S (2.5 mg/kg), SIM (5 mg/kg), Plus (KMUP-1 2.5 mg/kg + SIM 2.5 mg/kg), and clarithromycin (CAM, 10 mg/kg) were orally and daily administered for 7 and 28 days, respectively, to mice, sacrificed at day-7 and day-28 to isolate the lung tissues, for examining the inflammatory and fibrotic signaling and measuring the cell population and MMP-2/MMP-9 activity in broncholaveolar lavage fluid (BAL). KMUP-1 and KUP-1S significantly decreased neutrophil counts in BAL fluid. Fibroblastic foci were histologically assessed by H&E and Masson's trichrome stain and treated with KMUP-1 and references. Lung tissues were determined the contents of collagen and the expressions of TGF-β, α-SMA, HMGB1, CTGF, eNOS, p-eNOS, RhoA, Smad3, p-Smad3, MMP-2 and MMP-9 by Western blotting analyses, respectively. These changes areregulated by NO/cGMP and inhibited by various treatments. KMUP-1 and KMUP-1S predominantly prevented HMGB1/MMP-2 expression at day-7 and reduced TGF-β/phosphorylated Smad3 and CTGF at day-28. KMUP-1 and KMUP-S restore eNOS, inhibit iNOS/ROCKII/MMP-2/MMP-9, attenuate histologic collagen disposition and reduce BALF inflammatory cells, potentially useful for the treatment of BLM-lung PF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    C P Liu, M S Kuo, B N Wu, C Y Chai, H T Huang, P W Chung, I J Chen. NO-releasing xanthine KMUP-1 bonded by simvastatin attenuates bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and delayed fibrosis. Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics. 2014 Feb;27(1):17-28

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    PMID: 23518214

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