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    Isotropic optical focusing - the focusing of light with axial confinement that matches its lateral confinement, is important for a broad range of applications. Conventionally, such focusing is achieved by overlapping the focused beams from a pair of opposite-facing microscope objective lenses. However the exacting requirements for the alignment of the objective lenses and the method's relative intolerance to sample turbidity have significantly limited its utility. In this paper, we present an optical phase conjugation (OPC)-assisted isotropic focusing method that can address both challenges. We exploit the time-reversal nature of OPC playback to naturally guarantee the overlap of the two focused beams even when the objective lenses are significantly misaligned (up to 140 microns transversely and 80 microns axially demonstrated). The scattering correction capability of OPC also enabled us to accomplish isotropic focusing through thick scattering samples (demonstrated with samples of ~7 scattering mean free paths). This method can potentially improve 4Pi microscopy and 3D microstructure patterning.


    Mooseok Jang, Anne Sentenac, Changhuei Yang. Optical phase conjugation (OPC)-assisted isotropic focusing. Optics express. 2013 Apr 08;21(7):8781-92

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    PMID: 23571967

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