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Higher brain dysfunction is a major problems of epileptic patients. Epilepsy may cause transient epileptic higher brain dysfunctions like transient epileptic amnesia (TEA), or persistent epileptic higher brain dysfunction with or without findings of non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). These are all defined as epilepsy with higher brain dysfunction (E-HBD). Amnesia, aphasia, or personality/behavior change are well known symptoms of E-HBD. Geshwind syndrome including personality changes seen in temporal epileptic patients, and Klüver-Bucy syndrome have also reported as a symptom of epilepsy. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are used to prevent convulsive or non-convulsive attacks, but it may cause higher brain dysfunction. Sedation, impairment of concentration or memory, and dizziness are frequently seen as cognitive side effects of AEDs. We review these higher brain dysfunctions in epileptic patients, and report a case of limbic encephalitis.


Azusa Sugimoto, Akinori Futamura, Mitsuru Kawamura. Epilepsy and cognitive dysfunction]. Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyū no shinpo. 2013 May;65(5):541-9

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PMID: 23667119

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