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Menopause is a physiological event of women's life that is the end of menstrual cycles and the end of the fertile period. Normally the age at which women reach menopause is between 50 and 52 years, as the world average. Menopause occurs when the functional ovarian reserve is exhausted or can be induced by surgical removal of the ovaries. What follows, however, is the establishment of a state of hypoestrogenism, which potentially affects various organs and systems (genito-urinary system, cardiovascular system, skeleton, skin, brain) and quality of life of women (varying degrees of vasomotor symptoms, vaginal atrophy, osteoporosis). Hormone replacement therapy (HRT), it is based on estrogen or estrogen and progesterone, can be used to compensate for estrogen deficiency and to prevent or limit the damages that may result. During the years, there have been several observational studies designed to identify the risks and benefits arising from the use of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, in spontaneous and surgical menopause. In fact, although several studies have shown that women treated with estrogen enjoyed a better overall level of health, over the last decade have raised doubts about the safety of hormone replacement therapy long term. In our study we try to discuss, based on a review of the literature and evidence available to date, what are the present indications and controindications to the use of hormone replacement therapy.


M Fichera, N Rinaldi, M Tarascio, S Taschetta, L M Caldaci, A Catavorello, B La Rosa, M M Panella. Indications and controindications of hormone replacement therapy in menopause]. Minerva ginecologica. 2013 Jun;65(3):331-44

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PMID: 23689177

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