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Flavodoxin (Fld) conformational changes, thermal stability, and cofactor binding were studied using circular dichroism (CD), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and limited proteolysis. Thermodynamics of apo and holo-Fld folding were examined to discern the features of this important electron transfer protein and to provide data on apo-Fld. With the exception of fluorescence and UV-vis binding experiments with its cofactor flavin mononucleotide (FMN), apo-Fld is almost completely uncharacterized in Escherichia coli. Fld is more structured when the FMN cofactor is bound; the association is tight and driven by enthalpy of binding. Surface plasmon resonance binding experiments were carried out under anaerobic conditions for both apo- and holo-Fld and demonstrate the importance of structure and conformation for the interaction with binding partners. Holo-Fld is capable of associating with NADP(+)-dependent flavodoxin oxidoreductase (FNR) and pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme (PFL-AE) whereas there is no detectable interaction between apo-Fld and either protein. Limited proteolysis experiments were analyzed by LC-MS to identify the regions in Fld that are involved in conformation changes upon cofactor binding. Docking software was used to model the Fld/PFL-AE complex to understand the interactions between these two proteins and gain insight into electron transfer reactions from Fld to PFL-AE. © 2013.


Adam V Crain, Joan B Broderick. Flavodoxin cofactor binding induces structural changes that are required for protein-protein interactions with NADP(+) oxidoreductase and pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 2013 Dec;1834(12):2512-9

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PMID: 24016774

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