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    A bioassay-guided phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of Grindelia argentina Deble & Oliveira-Deble (Asteraceae) allowed the isolation of a known flavone, hispidulin, and three new oleanane-type saponins, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2β,3β,16α,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ester (2), 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2β,3β,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ester, (3) and 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2β,3β,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl ester (4), named grindeliosides A-C, respectively. Their structures were determined by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments along with mass spectrometry and chemical evidence. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against LPS/IFN-γ-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and for their cytotoxic activities against the human leukemic cell line CCRF-CEM and MRC-5 lung fibroblasts. Hispidulin markedly reduced LPS/IFN-γ-induced NO production (IC50 51.4 μM), while grindeliosides A-C were found to be cytotoxic, with grindelioside C being the most active against both CCRF-CEM (IC50 4.2±0.1 μM) and MRC-5 (IC50 4.5±0.1 μM) cell lines. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.


    Natalia P Alza, Eva-Maria Pferschy-Wenzig, Sabine Ortmann, Nadine Kretschmer, Olaf Kunert, Gerald N Rechberger, Rudolf Bauer, Ana P Murray. Inhibition of NO production by Grindelia argentina and isolation of three new cytotoxic saponins. Chemistry & biodiversity. 2014 Feb;11(2):311-22

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    PMID: 24591319

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