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Tordon is a widely used herbicide formulation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram), and it is considered a toxic herbicide. The purposes of this work were to assess the feasibility of a microbial consortium inoculated in a lab-scale compartmentalized biobarrier, to remove these herbicides, and isolate, identify, and evaluate their predominant microbial constituents. Volumetric loading rates of herbicides ranging from 31.2 to 143.9 g m(-3) day(-1), for 2,4-D, and 12.8 to 59.3 g m(-3) day(-1) for picloram were probed; however, the top operational limit of the biobarrier, detected by a decay in the removal efficiency, was not reached. At the highest loading rates probed, high average removal efficiencies of 2,4-D, 99.56 ± 0.44; picloram, 94.58 ± 2.62; and chemical oxygen demand (COD), 89.42 ± 3.68, were obtained. It was found that the lab-scale biofilm reactor efficiently removed both herbicides at dilution rates ranging from 0.92 to 4.23 day(-1), corresponding to hydraulic retention times from 1.087 to 0.236 days. On the other hand, few microbial strains able to degrade picloram are reported in the literature. In this work, three of the nine bacterial strains isolated cometabolically degrade picloram. They were identified as Hydrocarboniphaga sp., Tsukamurella sp., and Cupriavidus sp.


Yolanda Ordaz-Guillén, Cutberto Juvencio Galíndez-Mayer, Nora Ruiz-Ordaz, Cleotilde Juárez-Ramírez, Fortunata Santoyo-Tepole, Oswaldo Ramos-Monroy. Evaluating the degradation of the herbicides picloram and 2,4-D in a compartmentalized reactive biobarrier with internal liquid recirculation. Environmental science and pollution research international. 2014;21(14):8765-73

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PMID: 24737019

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