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Transcription factors of the RAV (RELATED TO ABI3 AND VP1) family are plant-specific and possess two DNA-binding domains. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the family comprises six members, including TEMPRANILLO 1 (TEM1) and TEM2. Arabidopsis RAV1 and TEM1 have been shown to bind bipartite DNA sequences, with the consensus motif C(A/C/G)ACA(N)2-8(C/A/T)ACCTG. Through direct binding to DNA, RAV proteins act as transcriptional repressors, probably in complexes with other co-repressors. In this review, a summary is given of current knowledge of the regulation and function of RAV genes in diverse plant species, paying particular attention to their roles in the control of flowering in arabidopsis. TEM1 and TEM2 delay flowering by repressing the production of two florigenic molecules, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and gibberellins. In this way, TEM1 and TEM2 prevent precocious flowering and postpone floral induction until the plant has accumulated enough reserves or has reached a growth stage that ensures survival of the progeny. Recent results indicate that TEM1 and TEM2 are regulated by genes acting in several flowering pathways, suggesting that TEMs may integrate information from diverse pathways. However, flowering is not the only process controlled by RAV proteins. Family members are involved in other aspects of plant development, such as bud outgrowth in trees and leaf senescence, and possibly in general growth regulation. In addition, they respond to pathogen infections and abiotic stresses, including cold, dehydration, high salinity and osmotic stress. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:


Luis Matías-Hernández, Andrea E Aguilar-Jaramillo, Esther Marín-González, Paula Suárez-López, Soraya Pelaz. RAV genes: regulation of floral induction and beyond. Annals of botany. 2014 Nov;114(7):1459-70

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PMID: 24812253

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