Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions

  • acth (3)
  • activity (8)
  • after treatment (1)
  • cells (7)
  • cortisol (1)
  • CRH (5)
  • cytoplasm (1)
  • ethanol (16)
  • gene (8)
  • GluR2 (1)
  • humans (2)
  • hypothalamus (1)
  • male (1)
  • mice (2)
  • nmda receptor (1)
  • NR1 (1)
  • NR2A (1)
  • NR2B (1)
  • nucleus (1)
  • pro opiomelanocortin (2)
  • proopiomelanocortin (13)
  • receptor (1)
  • rna (2)
  • western immunoblot (1)
  • Sizes of these terms reflect their relevance to your search.

    In humans, alcoholism is associated with a decrease in basal ACTH and cortisol levels, and blunted pituitary ACTH responses to administered corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) during active drinking and after long-term abstinence. Preclinical studies indicate that a persistent decrease in pituitary activation after chronic exposure to ethanol is due to a direct effect of ethanol on the corticotrope of the anterior pituitary. The present studies were undertaken to determine if ethanol has effects on proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene transcription activity in mouse anterior pituitary corticotrope tumor cell AtT20. We measured the levels of the POMC primary nuclear RNA transcript (PT), processing intermediate, and mature mRNA in the nucleus and the levels of the POMC mRNA in the cytoplasm after treatment of AtT20 cells with 5-15 mM concentrations of ethanol. After 15 mM ethanol for 60 to 120 min, the POMC PT levels were significantly decreased. This decreased POMC gene transcription activity was coupled with a significant reduction of the POMC cytoplasmic mRNA levels. After ethanol for 4h, however, both the decreases were no longer observed. After 8h, a decrease in the ACTH secretion in the medium was found. We further investigated if CRH or glutamate modulates the effects of ethanol on the POMC gene transcription activity. CRH at 10nM after 60 min increased the POMC PT levels, and 15mM ethanol attenuated the effect of CRH on the nuclear transcription activity. Glutamate receptor proteins, including NMDA receptor subtype NR1 (but not NR2A or NR2B) and GluR2, were identified by Western immunoblot analysis in AtT20 cells, with similar sizes to those in mouse hypothalamus. The inhibitory effect of 60 min ethanol at 5 to 15 mM on the POMC PT levels was attenuated by 50 μM L-glutamate. Together, our data showed that: (1) ethanol treatment in intoxicate doses significantly inhibited POMC gene transcription activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner in AtT20 cells, and (2) the POMC gene transcription activity in response to CRH or glutamate was altered by ethanol. Our results suggest that ethanol has an inhibitory effect on the POMC gene transcription activity in the anterior pituitary corticotrope, which may contribute to the persistent decrease in pituitary activation after chronic ethanol exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Yan Zhou, Christina Lapingo. Modulation of proopiomelanocortin gene expression by ethanol in mouse anterior pituitary corticotrope tumor cell AtT20. Regulatory peptides. 2014 Jun-Aug;192-193:6-14

    Expand section icon Mesh Tags

    Expand section icon Substances

    PMID: 25072633

    View Full Text