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    ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) 1 is thought to affect the morphologies of organelles, such as the Golgi apparatus, and regulate protein trafficking pathways. Mice have six Arf isoforms. In knockdown experiments with HeLa cells, no single Arf isoform among Arf1-5 is required for organelle morphologies or any membrane trafficking step. This suggests that the cooperation of two or more Arfs is a general feature. Although many cell biological and biochemical analyses have proven the importance of Arf1, the physiological roles of Arf1 in mice remain unknown. To investigate the activity of Arf1 in vivo, we established Arf1-deficient mice. Arf(-/-) blastocysts were identified at the expected Mendelian ratio. The appearance of these blastocysts was indistinguishable from that of wild-type and Arf(+/-) blastocysts, and they grew normally in an in vitro culture system. However, Arf(-/-) embryos were degenerated at E5.5, and none survived to E12.5, suggesting that they died soon after implantation. These data establish for the first time that the Arf1 gene is indispensable for mouse embryonic development after implantation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Natsuki Hayakawa, Honami Ogoh, Mami Sumiyoshi, Yasuhisa Matsui, Saori Nishikawa, Kananko Miyamoto, Yuko Maede, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Mai Suzuki, Toshio Watanabe. The ADP-ribosylation factor 1 gene is indispensable for mouse embryonic development after implantation. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2014 Oct 31;453(4):748-53

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    PMID: 25305484

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