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    The identification of an agent effective for the treatment of intestinal and bone marrow injury following radiation exposure remains a major issue in radiological medicine. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic impact of single agent or combination treatments with 2-(3-aminopropylamino) ethylsulphanyl phosphonic acid (WR-2721) and peptidoglycan (PGN, a toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) agonist) on radiation-induced injury of the intestine and bone marrow in lethally irradiated male C57BL/6 mice. A dose of 3 mg of WR-2721 per mouse (167 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was given 30 min before irradiation, and 30 μg of PGN per mouse (1.7 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 24 h after 10 Gy irradiation. Bone marrow cluster of differentiation (CD)45(+) and CD34(+) markers of multiple haematopoietic lineages, number of granulocyte-erythroid-macrophage-megakaryocyte (GEMM) progenitor colonies, bone marrow histopathology, leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) expression in the intestines, xylose absorption and intestinal histopathology were all assessed at various time-points after irradiation. Furthermore, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 protein in the ileum was stained by immunofluorescent labelling. PGN-treated irradiated mice showed an increase in CD45(+)CD34(+) cells compared with untreated mice 1.25 days after 10 Gy ionizing radiation (IR) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, combined PGN and WR-2721 treatment had an obviously synergistic radio-protective effect in nucleated cells in the bone marrow, including GEMM progenitors and CD45(+)CD34(+) cells 4 days after 10 Gy IR. Single agent PGN or WR-2721 treatment after 10 Gy IR clearly increased Lgr5-positive pit cells (P < 0.05) and xylose absorption (P < 0.05). However only PGN and WR-2721 combination treatment markedly increased villus height (P < 0.05), number of crypts (P < 0.05) and whole-body weights after 10 Gy whole-body irradiation (WBI). The NF-κB p65 subunit was translocated to the nucleus, and phosphate-IκBα (Ser32/Ser36) was detected after stimulation with either PGN or WR-2721, which indicates that these two agents act synergistically through the activation of the NF-κB pathway. Administration of PGN in combination with WR-2721 was demonstrated to have a synergistic effect on the increase in haematopoietic cells and intestinal reconstitution, as well as improved survival in lethally irradiated mice, but resulted in some degree of an immune disorder. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.


    Wei Liu, Qiu Chen, Shu Wu, Xiaochun Xia, Anqing Wu, Fengmei Cui, Yong-Ping Gu, Xueguang Zhang, Jianping Cao. Radioprotector WR-2721 and mitigating peptidoglycan synergistically promote mouse survival through the amelioration of intestinal and bone marrow damage. Journal of radiation research. 2015 Mar;56(2):278-86

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    PMID: 25617317

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