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The arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) catalyze the acetylation of aromatic and heterocyclic amines as well as hydrazines. All proteins in this family of enzymes utilize acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) as an acetyl donor, which initially binds to the enzyme and transfers an acetyl group to an active site cysteine. Here, we have investigated the role of a highly conserved amino acid (Lys(100)) in the enzymatic activity of human NAT1. Mutation of Lys(100) to either a glutamine or a leucine significantly increased the Ka for AcCoA without changing the Kb for the acetyl acceptor p-aminobenzoic acid. In addition, substrate inhibition was more marked with the mutant enzymes. Steady state kinetic analyzes suggested that mutation of Lys(100) to either leucine or glutamine resulted in a less stable enzyme-cofactor complex, which was not seen with a positively charged arginine at this position. When p-nitrophenylacetate was used as acetyl donor, no differences were seen between the wild-type and mutant enzymes because p-nitrophenylacetate is too small to interact with Lys(100) when bound to the active site. Using 3'-dephospho-AcCoA as the acetyl donor, kinetic data confirmed that Ly(100) interacts with the 3'-phosphoanion to stabilize the enzyme-cofactor complex. Mutation of Lys(100) decreases the affinity of AcCoA for the protein and increases the rate of CoA release. Crystal structures of several other unrelated acetyltransferases show a lysine or arginine residue within 3Å of the 3'-phosphoanion of AcCoA, suggesting that this mechanism for stabilizing the complex by the formation of a salt bridge may be widely applicable in nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Rodney F Minchin, Neville J Butcher. The role of lysine(100) in the binding of acetylcoenzyme A to human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1: implications for other acetyltransferases. Biochemical pharmacology. 2015 Apr 1;94(3):195-202

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PMID: 25660616

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