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    SNQ2 was identified as a caffeine-resistance gene by screening a genomic library of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a multicopy vector YEp24. SNQ2 encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter and is highly homologous to PDR5. Multicopy of PDR5 also conferred resistance to caffeine, while its resistance was smaller than that of SNQ2. Residual caffeine contents were analyzed after transiently exposing cells to caffeine. The ratios of caffeine contents were 21.3 ± 8.8% (YEp24-SNQ2) and 81.9 ± 8.7% (YEp24-PDR5) relative to control (YEp24, 100%). In addition, multicopies of SNQ2 or PDR5 conferred resistance to rhodamine 6G (R6G), which was widely used as a substrate for transport assay. R6G was exported by both transporters, and their efflux activities were inhibited by caffeine with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 5.3 ± 1.9 (YEp24-SNQ2) and 17.2 ± 9.6 mM (YEp24-PDR5). These results demonstrate that Snq2p is a more functional transporter of caffeine than Pdr5p in yeast cells.


    Yoshiyuki Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro Shimizu, Kazuya Otake, Tatsuya Nakamura, Ryutaro Okada, Toshitaka Miyazaki, Kunihiko Watanabe. Multidrug resistance transporters Snq2p and Pdr5p mediate caffeine efflux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry. 2015;79(7):1103-10

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    PMID: 25686090

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