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Carboxyl ester lipase is a digestive pancreatic enzyme encoded by the CEL gene. Mutations in CEL cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young as well as pancreatic exocrine dysfunction. Here we describe a hybrid allele (CEL-HYB) originating from a crossover between CEL and its neighboring pseudogene, CELP. In a discovery series of familial chronic pancreatitis cases, we observed CEL-HYB in 14.1% (10/71) of cases compared to 1.0% (5/478) of controls (odds ratio (OR) = 15.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.1-46.9; P = 1.3 × 10(-6) by two-tailed Fisher's exact test). In three replication studies of nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis, we identified CEL-HYB in a total of 3.7% (42/1,122) cases and 0.7% (30/4,152) controls (OR = 5.2; 95% CI = 3.2-8.5; P = 1.2 × 10(-11); formal meta-analysis). The allele was also enriched in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Expression of CEL-HYB in cellular models showed reduced lipolytic activity, impaired secretion, prominent intracellular accumulation and induced autophagy. These findings implicate a new pathway distinct from the protease-antiprotease system of pancreatic acinar cells in chronic pancreatitis.

Citation

Karianne Fjeld, Frank Ulrich Weiss, Denise Lasher, Jonas Rosendahl, Jian-Min Chen, Bente B Johansson, Holger Kirsten, Claudia Ruffert, Emmanuelle Masson, Solrun J Steine, Peter Bugert, Miriam Cnop, Robert Grützmann, Julia Mayerle, Joachim Mössner, Monika Ringdal, Hans-Ulrich Schulz, Matthias Sendler, Peter Simon, Paweł Sztromwasser, Janniche Torsvik, Markus Scholz, Erling Tjora, Claude Férec, Heiko Witt, Markus M Lerch, Pål R Njølstad, Stefan Johansson, Anders Molven. A recombined allele of the lipase gene CEL and its pseudogene CELP confers susceptibility to chronic pancreatitis. Nature genetics. 2015 May;47(5):518-22

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PMID: 25774637

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