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    The influence of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on transglutaminase 1 (TGase 1), a major factor that regulates skin keratinization, has not been sufficiently characterized especially at the gene or protein level. Thus, we determined whether UVB affects the expression of TGase 1 in human keratinocytes and clarified the intracellular stress signaling mechanism(s) involved. Exposure of human keratinocytes to UVB significantly up-regulated the expression of TGase 1 at the gene and protein levels. Treatment with inhibitors of p38, MEK, JNK or NFκB significantly abolished the UVB-stimulated protein expression of TGase 1. Treatment with astaxanthin immediately after UVB irradiation did not attenuate the increased phosphorylation of Ser536/Ser468NFκBp65, c-Jun, ATK-2 and CK2, and did not abrogate the increased or diminished protein levels of c-Jun/c-Fos or I-κBα, respectively. However, the same treatment with astaxanthin significantly abolished the UVB-stimulated expression of TGase 1 protein, which was accompanied by the attenuated phosphorylation of Thr565/Ser376/Ser360MSK1, Ser276NFκBp65 and Ser133CREB. The MSK1 inhibitor H89 significantly down-regulated the increased protein expression of TGase 1 in UVB-exposed human keratinocytes, which was accompanied by an abrogating effect on the increased phosphorylation of Ser276NFκBp65 and Ser133CREB but not Thr565/Ser376/Ser360MSK1. Transfection of human keratinocytes with MSK1 siRNA suppressed the UVB-stimulated protein expression of TGase 1. These findings suggest that the UVB-stimulated expression of TGase 1 is mediated predominantly via the NFκB pathway and can be attenuated through a specific interruption of the p38/MSK1/NFκBp65Ser276 axis.


    Shuko Terazawa, Shingo Mori, Hiroaki Nakajima, Michitaka Yasuda, Genji Imokawa. The UVB-Stimulated Expression of Transglutaminase 1 Is Mediated Predominantly via the NFκB Signaling Pathway: New Evidence of Its Significant Attenuation through the Specific Interruption of the p38/MSK1/NFκBp65 Ser276 Axis. PloS one. 2015;10(8):e0136311

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    PMID: 26305102

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