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    Photoreceptors (PRs) are highly polarized and compartmentalized cells with large amounts of proteins synthesized in the inner segment (IS) and transported to the outer segment (OS) and synaptic terminal. The PR-specific protein, Tulp1, is localized to the IS and synapse and is hypothesized to be involved in protein trafficking. To better understand the molecular processes that regulate protein trafficking in PRs, we aimed to identify compartment-specific Tulp1 binding partners. Serial tangential sectioning of Long Evans rat retinas was utilized to isolate the IS and synaptic PR compartments. Tulp1 binding partners in each of these layers were identified using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) with Tulp1 antibodies. The co-IP eluates were separated by SDS-PAGE, trypsinized into peptide fragments, and proteins were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. In the IS, potential Tulp1-binding partners included cytoskeletal scaffold proteins, protein trafficking molecules, as well as members of the phototransduction cascade. In the synaptic region, the majority of interacting proteins identified were cytoskeletal. A separate subset of proteins were identified in both the IS and synapse including chaperones and family members of the GTPase activating proteins. Tulp1 has two distinct PR compartment-specific interactomes. Our results support the hypothesis that Tulp1 is involved in the trafficking of proteins from the IS to the OS and the continuous membrane remodeling and vesicle cycling at the synaptic terminal.


    Lindsey A Ebke, Gayle J T Pauer, Belinda Willard, Stephanie A Hagstrom. A Novel Approach to Identify Photoreceptor Compartment-Specific Tulp1 Binding Partners. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2016;854:605-11

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    PMID: 26427465

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