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The effects of metoclopramide on the central nervous system (CNS) in patients suggest substantial brain distribution. Previous data suggest that metoclopramide brain kinetics may nonetheless be controlled by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters expressed at the blood-brain barrier. We used (11)C-metoclopramide PET imaging to elucidate the kinetic impact of transporter function on metoclopramide exposure to the brain. (11)C-metoclopramide transport by P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1) and the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; ABCG2) was tested using uptake assays in cells overexpressing P-gp and BCRP. (11)C-metoclopramide brain kinetics were compared using PET in rats (n = 4-5) in the absence and presence of a pharmacologic dose of metoclopramide (3 mg/kg), with or without P-gp inhibition using intravenous tariquidar (8 mg/kg). The (11)C-metoclopramide brain distribution (VT based on Logan plot analysis) and brain kinetics (2-tissue-compartment model) were characterized with either a measured or an imaged-derived input function. Plasma and brain radiometabolites were studied using radio-high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. (11)C-metoclopramide transport was selective for P-gp over BCRP. Pharmacologic dose did not affect baseline (11)C-metoclopramide brain kinetics (VT = 2.28 ± 0.32 and 2.04 ± 0.19 mL⋅cm(-3) using microdose and pharmacologic dose, respectively). Tariquidar significantly enhanced microdose (11)C-metoclopramide VT (7.80 ± 1.43 mL⋅cm(-3)) with a 4.4-fold increase in K1 (influx rate constant) and a 2.3-fold increase in binding potential (k3/k4) in the 2-tissue-compartment model. In the pharmacologic situation, P-gp inhibition significantly increased metoclopramide brain distribution (VT = 6.28 ± 0.48 mL⋅cm(-3)) with a 2.0-fold increase in K1 and a 2.2-fold decrease in k2 (efflux rate), with no significant impact on binding potential. In this situation, only parent (11)C-metoclopramide could be detected in the brains of P-gp-inhibited rats. (11)C-metoclopramide benefits from favorable pharmacokinetic properties that offer reliable quantification of P-gp function at the blood-brain barrier in a pharmacologic situation. Using metoclopramide as a model of CNS drug, we demonstrated that P-gp function not only reduces influx but also mediates the efflux from the brain back to the blood compartment, with additional impact on brain distribution. This PET-based strategy of P-gp function investigation may provide new insight on the contribution of P-gp to the variability of response to CNS drugs between patients. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

Citation

Géraldine Pottier, Solène Marie, Sébastien Goutal, Sylvain Auvity, Marie-Anne Peyronneau, Simon Stute, Raphaël Boisgard, Frédéric Dollé, Irène Buvat, Fabien Caillé, Nicolas Tournier. Imaging the Impact of the P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1) Function on the Brain Kinetics of Metoclopramide. Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine. 2016 Feb;57(2):309-14

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PMID: 26585058

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