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The purpose of the study was to determine the anti-melanogenic and anti-oxidant properties of Gaillardia aristata flower extract (GAE). Melanogenesis inhibition by GAE was investigated in cultivated cells and in a human skin model. In cultivated cells, the melanogenesis regulatory effect of GAE was evaluated using melanin content, intracellular tyrosinase activity and anti-oxidant characteristics. In addition, the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins was determined by western blot assay and real-time PCR. GAE reduced the amount of melanin in B16F10 and normal human epidermal melanocyte cells and suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent pattern. Also, GAE significantly decreased the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins (microphthalmia associated transcription factor, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1, and dopachrome tautomerase). Real-time PCR results revealed a down-regulation of the mRNAs of these proteins. GAE possessed anti-oxidant characteristics as free radical-scavenging capacity and reducing power. In the three-dimensional human skin model, GAE applied to hyperpigmented skin significantly increased the degree of skin lightening within 2 weeks of treatment. The safety of GAE on human skin was confirmed. These results indicate the potential of GAE for use in suppressing skin pigmentation. We proposed GAE as a new candidate of anti-melanogenic and antioxidant agents that could be used for cosmetic skin care products.


Minkyung Kim, Seoungwoo Shin, Jung-A Lee, Deokhoon Park, Jongsung Lee, Eunsun Jung. Inhibition of melanogenesis by Gaillardia aristata flower extract. BMC complementary and alternative medicine. 2015;15:449

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PMID: 26702819

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