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    Although a smartphone could be used for a urine reagent strip test, few studies have reported on the reliability of the test in a clinical setting. The objective of our study was to access the smartphone-based urine reagent strip test in the clinical emergency department (ED). We developed a smartphone-based urine reagent strip reader for a rapid and accurate screening of leukocyte esterase (LE) and nitrite (NIT) in urine. The developed reader was evaluated with the clinical urine samples (n = 81). The detection performance of the reader for LE and NIT was evaluated to assess reliability of the reader; turnaround times (TATs) for analysis and the time for the entire study procedure were also calculated to assess the efficiency of the reader. A photometric analyzer (model US-3100R Plus(®); Eiken Chemical, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was used as a reference. The proposed reader showed high accuracy (85.2% for LE and 97.5% for NIT), exhibiting close agreement with the true values (κ = 0.903 for LE; κ = 1.000 for NIT). The reader also exhibited a lower median TAT for analysis than the photometric analyzer (3.0 min versus 33.0 min; p < 0.001). This reduction of TAT in the reader was even more evident considering the required time for delivery of urine samples for the photometric analyzer (3.0 min versus 62.0 min; p < 0.001). Our results demonstrated the clinical capability of a smartphone-based urine reagent strip test, and this reader is expected to enable a more rapid and reliable colorimetric test for screening of LE and NIT at the clinical setting and the point of care.


    Karam Choi, Ikwan Chang, Jung Chan Lee, Do Kyun Kim, Seungwoo Noh, Heejeong Ahn, Jun Hwi Cho, Young Ho Kwak, Sungwan Kim, Hee Chan Kim. Smartphone-Based Urine Reagent Strip Test in the Emergency Department. Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association. 2016 Jun;22(6):534-40

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    PMID: 26812464

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