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    Olfactory receptors (ORs), which belong to the G-protein coupled receptor family, are expressed in various human tissues, including skin. Cells in non-olfactory tissues tend to express more than one individual OR gene, but function and interaction of two or more ORs in the same cell type has only been marginally analyzed. Here, we revealed OR2A4/7 and OR51B5 as two new ORs in human skin cells and identified cyclohexyl salicylate and isononyl alcohol as agonists of these receptors. In cultured human keratinocytes, both odorants induce strong Ca(2+) signals that are mediated by OR2A4/7 and OR51B5, as demonstrated by receptor knockdown experiments. Activation of both receptors induces a cAMP-dependent pathway. Localization studies and functional characterization of both receptors revealed several differences. OR2A4/7 is expressed in suprabasal keratinocytes and basal melanocytes of the epidermis and influences cytokinesis, cell proliferation, phosphorylation of AKT and Chk-2 and secretion of IL-1. In contrast, OR51B5 is exclusively expressed in suprabasal keratinocytes, supports cell migration and regeneration of keratinocyte monolayers, and influences Hsp27, AMPK1 and p38MAPK phosphorylation and interestingly, IL-6 secretion. These findings underline that different ORs perform diverse functions in cutaneous cells, and thus offering an approach for the modulated treatment of skin diseases and wound repair. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


    Teresa Tsai, Sophie Veitinger, Irina Peek, Daniela Busse, Josephine Eckardt, Dilyana Vladimirova, Nikolina Jovancevic, Sebastian Wojcik, Günter Gisselmann, Janine Altmüller, Sonja Ständer, Thomas Luger, Ralf Paus, Jeremy Cheret, Hanns Hatt. Two olfactory receptors -OR2A4/7 and OR51B5- differentially affect epidermal proliferation and differentiation. Experimental dermatology. 2016 Jun 17

    PMID: 27315375

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