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    Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury is an important cause of death and disabilities. Despite all improvements in neonatal care, the number of children who suffer some kind of injury during birth has remained stable in the last decade. A great number of studies have shown alterations in neural cells and many animal models have been proposed in the last 5 decades. Robinson et al. (2005) proposed an HI model in which the uterine arteries are temporarily clamped on the 18th gestation day. The findings were quite similar to the ones observed in postmortem studies. The white matter is clearly damaged, and a great amount of astrogliosis takes place both in the gray and white matters. Motor changes were also found but no data regarding the cerebellum, an important structure related to motor performance, was presented. Using this model, we have shown an increased level of iNOS at P0 and microgliosis and astrogliosis at P9, and astrogliosis at P23 (up to 4 weeks from the insult). NO is important in migration, maturation, and synaptic plasticity, but in exacerbated levels it may also contribute to cellular and tissue damage. We have also evaluated oligodendroglia development in the cerebellum. At P9 in HI animals, we found a decrease in the number of PDGFRα+ cells and an apparent delay in myelination, suggesting a failure in oligodendroglial progenitors migration/maturation and/or in the myelination process. These results point to an injury in cerebellar development that might help to explain the motor problems in HI.

    Citation

    Penha Cristina Barradas, Tiago Savignon, Alex C Manhães, Frank Tenório, Alan P da Costa, Marta C Cunha-Rodrigues, Juliana Vaillant. Prenatal Systemic Hypoxia-Ischemia and Oligodendroglia Loss in Cerebellum. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2016;949:333-345

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    PMID: 27714697

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