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    As a cellular signaling molecule, nitric oxide (NO) is widely conserved from microorganisms, such as bacteria, yeasts, and fungi, to higher eukaryotes including plants and mammals. NO is mainly produced by NO synthase (NOS) or nitrite reductase (NIR) activity. There are several NO detoxification systems, including NO dioxygenase (NOD) and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR). NO homeostasis based on the balance between NO synthesis and degradation is important for the regulation of its physiological functions because an excess level of NO causes nitrosative stress due to the high reactivity of NO and NO-derived compounds. In yeast, NO may be involved in stress responses, but NO and its signaling have been poorly understood due to the lack of mammalian NOS orthologs in the genome. Even though the activities of NOS and NIR have been observed in yeast cells, the gene encoding NOS and the NO production mechanism catalyzed by NIR remain unclear. On the other hand, yeast cells employ NOD and GSNOR to maintain an intracellular redox balance following endogenous NO production, exogenous NO treatment, or environmental stresses. This article reviews NO metabolism (synthesis, degradation) and its regulation in yeast. The physiological roles of NO in yeast, including the oxidative stress response, are also discussed here. Such investigations into NO signaling are essential for understanding the NO-dependent genetic and physiological modulations. In addition to being responsible for the pathology and pharmacology of various degenerative diseases, NO signaling may be a potential target for the construction and engineering of industrial yeast strains.


    Rika Indri Astuti, Ryo Nasuno, Hiroshi Takagi. Nitric oxide signaling in yeast. Applied microbiology and biotechnology. 2016 Nov;100(22):9483-9497

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    PMID: 27722918

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