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Four pyrrolizidine alkaloids, namely 7-O-angeloyllycopsamine N-oxide 1, echimidine N-oxide 2, echimidine 3 and 7-O-angeloylretronecine 4, were isolated for the first time from the whole plant ethanolic extract of Echium confusum Coincy, through bioassay-guided approach. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means. All the isolates compounds showed moderate activities in inhibiting AChE, with IC50 0.276-0.769.


Houari Benamar, Lamberto Tomassini, Alessandro Venditti, Abderrazak Marouf, Malika Bennaceur, Mauro Serafini, Marcello Nicoletti. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Echium confusum Coincy. Natural product research. 2017 Jun;31(11):1277-1285

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PMID: 27748125

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