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Although the rapid effects of steroids, such as estrogen and aldosterone, were postulated originally to be nongenomic, it is now appreciated that activation of such signaling pathways via a steroid-acting G protein-coupled receptor, the G protein estrogen receptor (GPER), has important transcription-dependent outcomes in the regulation of cell growth and programmed cell death secondary to GPER-regulated second-messenger pathways. GPER is expressed ubiquitously and has diverse biological effects, including regulation of endocrine, immune, neuronal, and cardiovascular functions. Perhaps the most biologically important consequences of GPER activation are the regulation of cell growth, migration, and apoptotic cell death. These cell growth regulatory effects, important in cancer biology, are also relevant in the regulation of cardiac and vascular hypertrophy and in the response to ischemia. This review provides a summary of relevant findings of the impact of GPER regulation by either estradiol or aldosterone in in vitro model systems and extends those findings to in vivo studies of direct clinical relevance for development of GPER-directed agents for treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases associated with cellular proliferation.


Ross D Feldman, Lee E Limbird. GPER (GPR30): A Nongenomic Receptor (GPCR) for Steroid Hormones with Implications for Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 2017 Jan 06;57:567-584

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PMID: 27814026

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