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Under the environment of pregnancy, the placenta assumes an important steroidogenic role in the maintenance of pregnancy. Urinary placental leucine aminopeptidase (PLAP), estrone-3-glucuronide (E1 G), and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG) concentrations were compared among five pregnancies (four live births and one stillbirth) in four orangutans. The gestation period of the stillbirth (223 days) was shorter than that of the live births (239-254 days). In females who gave a live birth, average PLAP and E1 G concentrations increased until the delivery. Conversely, in the female who gave a stillbirth, PLAP concentration failed to increase, and E1 G concentration was significantly low in late pregnancy period. Regarding PdG concentrations, there was no significant difference among all pregnancies. This is the first study reporting a change in urinary PLAP, E1 G, and PdG concentrations during orangutan stillbirth and live birth pregnancies. The findings will assist in developing pregnancy screening tests. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Kodzue Kinoshita, Yusuke Sano, Akira Takai, Mika Shimizu, Toshio Kobayashi, Akihiro Ouchi, Noko Kuze, Miho Inoue-Murayama, Gen'ichi Idani, Munehiro Okamoto, Yasuhiko Ozaki. Urinary sex steroid hormone and placental leucine aminopeptidase concentration differences between live births and stillbirth of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Journal of medical primatology. 2017 Feb;46(1):3-8

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PMID: 27859398

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