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    Due to the overuse of antibiotics in livestock as a growth-promoting agent, the emergence of multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria is becoming a concern. In this study, we aimed to detect the presence and discover the molecular determinants of foodborne bacteria in retail sausages resistant towards the antibacterial agent amoxicillin-clavulanate. Two grams of sausages were chopped into small pieces and transferred into sterile Luria-Bertani (LB) enrichment broths overnight before they were plated on MacConkey agar petri dishes. The bacteria isolated were then screened for amoxicillin-clavulanate resistance, and an antimicrobial susceptibility test of each isolate was performed by using the disc diffusion method. Double synergy and phenotypic tests were carried out to detect the presence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). API 20E kit was used to identify the Enterobacteriaceae. All isolates were further examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for resistant genes blaOXA-1, blaOXA-10, plasmid-mediated AmpC (blaCMY and blaDHA), and the chromosome-mediated AmpC, Sul1, blaTEM, and blaSHV genes. A total of 18 amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant isolates were obtained from seven different types of retail sausages. Only half of them were identified as Enterobacteriaceae, but none were ESBL-producers. All the 18 isolated strains demonstrated resistance towards amoxicillin-clavulanate, penicillin and oxacillin (100%), cefotaxime (71.4%), cefpodoxime (66.7%), and ampicillin (83.3%). blaTEM was the most frequently detected β-lactamase gene. Both plasmid- and chromosomal-bound blaTEM genes were detected in all of the isolated Enterobacteriaceae. blaSHV and Sul1 accounted for 22.2% and 11.1% of the amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant isolates, respectively, whereas blaAMPC, blaCMY, blaDHA, blaOXA-1, and blaOXA-10 were not found in any of the isolates. The only one ESBL-producing bacteria detected in this study was Chryseobacterium meningosepticum, which harbored the blaTEM gene. The multidrug resistant bacteria that carry antibiotic resistant genes from retail sausages may increase the risk of transmission to humans via the consumption of contaminated sausages. Stricter measures must be taken to address the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and to consider their potential impact on human health.


    Lih-Shin Tew, Li-Yen She, Choy-Hoong Chew. Isolation, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile and Detection of Sul1, blaTEM, and blaSHV in Amoxicillin-Clavulanate-Resistant Bacteria Isolated From Retail Sausages in Kampar, Malaysia. Jundishapur journal of microbiology. 2016 Oct;9(10):e37897

    PMID: 27942365

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