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    Annexin A6 (AnxA6) belongs to the conserved annexin family - a group of Ca2+-dependent membrane binding proteins. AnxA6 is the largest of all annexins and highly expressed in smooth muscle, hepatocytes, endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. Upon activation, AnxA6 binds to negatively charged phospholipids in a wide range of intracellular localizations, in particular the plasma membrane, late endosomes/pre-lysosomes, but also synaptic vesicles and sarcolemma. In these cellular sites, AnxA6 is believed to contribute to the organization of membrane microdomains, such as cholesterol-rich lipid rafts and confer multiple regulatory functions, ranging from vesicle fusion, endocytosis and exocytosis to programmed cell death and muscle contraction. Growing evidence supports that Ca2+ and Ca2+-binding proteins control endocytosis and autophagy. Their regulatory role seems to operate at the level of the signalling pathways that initiate autophagy or at later stages, when autophagosomes fuse with endolysosomal compartments. The convergence of the autophagic and endocytic vesicles to lysosomes shares several features that depend on Ca2+ originating from lysosomes/late endosomes and seems to depend on proteins that are subsequently activated by this cation. However, the involvement of Ca2+ and its effector proteins in these autophagic and endocytic stages still remains poorly understood. Although AnxA6 makes up almost 0.25% of total protein in the liver, little is known about its function in hepatocytes. Within the endocytic route, we identified AnxA6 in endosomes and autophagosomes of hepatocytes. Hence, AnxA6 and possibly other annexins might represent new Ca2+ effectors that regulate converging steps of autophagy and endocytic trafficking in hepatocytes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: ECS Meeting edited by Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs and Jacques Haiech. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Citation

    Carlos Enrich, Carles Rentero, Thomas Grewal. Annexin A6 in the liver: From the endocytic compartment to cellular physiology. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 2017 Jun;1864(6):933-946

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    PMID: 27984093

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