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To conduct comprehensive characterization of molecular properties in organisms, we established an efficient method to produce knockout (KO)-rescue mice within a single generation. We applied this method to produce 20 strains of almost completely embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived mice ("ES mice") rescued with wild-type and mutant Cry1 gene under a Cry1-/-:Cry2-/- background. A series of both phosphorylation-mimetic and non-phosphorylation-mimetic CRY1 mutants revealed that multisite phosphorylation of CRY1 can serve as a cumulative timer in the mammalian circadian clock. KO-rescue ES mice also revealed that CRY1-PER2 interaction confers a robust circadian rhythmicity in mice. Surprisingly, in contrast to theoretical predictions from canonical transcription/translation feedback loops, the residues surrounding the flexible P loop and C-lid domains of CRY1 determine circadian period without changing the degradation rate of CRY1. These results suggest that CRY1 determines circadian period through both its degradation-dependent and -independent pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Koji L Ode, Hideki Ukai, Etsuo A Susaki, Ryohei Narumi, Katsuhiko Matsumoto, Junko Hara, Naoshi Koide, Takaya Abe, Masato T Kanemaki, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Hiroki R Ueda. Knockout-Rescue Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mouse Reveals Circadian-Period Control by Quality and Quantity of CRY1. Molecular cell. 2017 Jan 05;65(1):176-190

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PMID: 28017587

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