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    Xenin-25, a neurotensin (NT)-related anorexigenic gut hormone generated mostly in the duodenal mucosa, is believed to increase the rate of duodenal ion secretion, because xenin-induced diarrhea is not present after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Because the local effects of xenin on duodenal ion secretion have remained uninvestigated, we thus examined the neural pathways underlying xenin-induced duodenal anion secretion. Intravenous infusion of xenin-8, a bioactive C-terminal fragment of xenin-25, dose dependently increased the rate of duodenal HCO3- secretion in perfused duodenal loops of anesthetized rats. Xenin was immunolocalized to a subset of enteroendocrine cells in the rat duodenum. The mRNA of the xenin/NT receptor 1 (NTS1) was predominantly expressed in the enteric plexus, nodose and dorsal root ganglia, and in the lamina propria rather than in the epithelium. The serosal application of xenin-8 or xenin-25 rapidly and transiently increased short-circuit current in Ussing-chambered mucosa-submucosa preparations in a concentration-dependent manner in the duodenum and jejunum, but less so in the ileum and colon. The selective antagonist for NTS1, substance P (SP) receptor (NK1), or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)3, but not NTS2, inhibited the responses to xenin. Xenin-evoked Cl- secretion was reduced by tetrodotoxin (TTX) or capsaicin-pretreatment, and abolished by the inhibitor of TTX-resistant sodium channel Nav1.8 in combination with TTX, suggesting that peripheral xenin augments duodenal HCO3- and Cl- secretion through NTS1 activation on intrinsic and extrinsic afferent nerves, followed by release of SP and 5-HT. Afferent nerve activation by postprandial, peripherally released xenin may account for its secretory effects in the duodenum. U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.


    Izumi Kaji, Yasutada Akiba, Ikuo Kato, Koji Maruta, Atsukazu Kuwahara, Jonathan D Kaunitz. Xenin Augments Duodenal Anion Secretion via Activation of Afferent Neural Pathways. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. 2017 Apr;361(1):151-161

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    PMID: 28115552

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