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    Inflammation is a defensive mechanism for pathogen clearance and maintaining tissue homeostasis. In the skeletal system, inflammation is closely associated with many bone disorders including fractures, nonunions, periprosthetic osteolysis (bone loss around orthopedic implants), and osteoporosis. Acute inflammation is a critical step for proper bone-healing and bone-remodeling processes. On the other hand, chronic inflammation with excessive proinflammatory cytokines disrupts the balance of skeletal homeostasis involving osteoblastic (bone formation) and osteoclastic (bone resorption) activities. NF-κB is a transcriptional factor that regulates the inflammatory response and bone-remodeling processes in both bone-forming and bone-resorption cells. In vitro and in vivo evidences suggest that NF-κB is an important potential therapeutic target for inflammation-associated bone disorders by modulating inflammation and bone-remodeling process simultaneously. The challenges of NF-κB-targeting therapy in bone disorders include: (1) the complexity of canonical and noncanonical NF-κB pathways; (2) the fundamental roles of NF-κB-mediated signaling for bone regeneration at earlier phases of tissue damage and acute inflammation; and (3) the potential toxic effects on nontargeted cells such as lymphocytes. Recent developments of novel inhibitors with differential approaches to modulate NF-κB activity, and the controlled release (local) or bone-targeting drug delivery (systemic) strategies, have largely increased the translational application of NF-κB therapy in bone disorders. Taken together, temporal modulation of NF-κB pathways with the combination of recent advanced bone-targeting drug delivery techniques is a highly translational strategy to reestablish homeostasis in the skeletal system. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    T-H Lin, J Pajarinen, L Lu, A Nabeshima, L A Cordova, Z Yao, S B Goodman. NF-κB as a Therapeutic Target in Inflammatory-Associated Bone Diseases. Advances in protein chemistry and structural biology. 2017;107:117-154

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    PMID: 28215222

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