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The cardiovascular system forms during early embryogenesis and adapts to embryonic growth by sprouting angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. These processes require fine-tuning of cell-cell adhesion to maintain and re-establish endothelial contacts, while allowing cell motility. We have compared the contribution of two endothelial cell-specific adhesion proteins, VE-cadherin (VE-cad/Cdh5) and Esama (endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule a), during angiogenic sprouting and blood vessel fusion (anastomosis) in the zebrafish embryo by genetic analyses. Different combinations of mutant alleles can be placed into a phenotypic series with increasing defects in filopodial contact formation. Contact formation in esama mutants appears similar to wild type, whereas esama-/-; ve-cad+/- and ve-cad single mutants exhibit intermediate phenotypes. The lack of both proteins interrupts filopodial interaction completely. Furthermore, double mutants do not form a stable endothelial monolayer, and display intrajunctional gaps, dislocalization of Zo-1 and defects in apical-basal polarization. In summary, VE-cadherin and Esama have distinct and redundant functions during blood vessel morphogenesis, and both adhesion proteins are central to endothelial cell recognition during anastomosis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.


Loïc Sauteur, Markus Affolter, Heinz-Georg Belting. Distinct and redundant functions of Esama and VE-cadherin during vascular morphogenesis. Development (Cambridge, England). 2017 Apr 15;144(8):1554-1565

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PMID: 28264837

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