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    Treatment alternatives for DHA-1 harboring strains are challenging as it confers resistance to broad spectrum cephalosporins and may further limit treatment option when expressed at higher levels. Therefore, this study was designed to know the prevalence of DHA genes and analyse the transcription level of DHA-1 against different β-lactam stress. Screening of AmpC β-lactamase phenotypically by modified three dimensional extract method followed by Antimicrobial Susceptibility and MIC determination. Genotyping screening of β-lactamase genes was performed by PCR assay followed by their sequencing. The bla DHA-1 transcriptional response was evaluated under different cephalosporin stress by RT PCR. Transferability of bla DHA gene was performed by transformation and conjugation and plasmid incompatibility typing, DNA fingerprinting by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences PCR. 16 DHA-1 genes were screened positive from 176 Escherichia coli isolates and primer extension analysis showed a significant increase in DHA-1 mRNA transcription in response to cefotaxime at 8 µg/ml (6.99 × 102 fold), ceftriaxone at 2 µg/ml (2.63 × 103 fold), ceftazidime at 8 µg/ml (7.06 × 103 fold) and cefoxitin at 4 µg/ml (3.60 × 104 fold) when compared with untreated strain. These transcription data were found significant when analyzed statistically using one way ANOVA. Four different ESBL genes were detected in 10 isolates which include CTX-M (n = 6), SHV (n = 4), TEM (n = 3) and OXA-10 (n = 1), whereas, carbapenemase gene (NDM) was detected only in one isolate. Other plasmid mediated AmpC β-lactamases CIT (n = 9), EBC (n = 2) were detected in nine isolates. All DHA-1 genes detected were encoded in plasmid and incompatibility typing from the transformants indicated that the plasmid encoding bla DHA-1 was carried mostly by the FIA and L/M Inc group. This study demonstrates the prevalence of DHA-1 gene in this region and highlights high transcription of DHA-1 when induced with different β-lactam antibiotics. Therefore, cephalosporin treatment must be restricted for the patients infected with pathogen expressing this resistance determinant.


    Birson Ingti, Deepjyoti Paul, Anand Prakash Maurya, Debajyoti Bora, Debadatta Dhar Chanda, Atanu Chakravarty, Amitabha Bhattacharjee. Occurrence of bla DHA-1 mediated cephalosporin resistance in Escherichia coli and their transcriptional response against cephalosporin stress: a report from India. Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials. 2017 Mar 21;16(1):13

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    PMID: 28320396

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