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    In aquatic environments, organisms are often exposed to mixtures of several pesticides. In this study, the effects of carbofuran and diuron and their mixtures on the microalgae Raphidocelis subcapitata were investigated. For this purpose, toxicity tests were performed with the single compounds (active ingredients and commercial formulations) and their combinations (only active ingredients). According to the results, the toxicity of active ingredients and their commercial formulations to R. subcapitata was similar. In the single exposures, both carbofuran and diuron inhibited significantly the R. subcapitata growth and caused physiological (chlorophyll a content) and morphological (complexity and cell size) changes in cells, as captured by flow cytometry single-cell properties. Regarding the mixture toxicity tests, data fitted to both reference models, concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA), and evidenced significant deviations. After the CA fitting, dose-ratio dependent deviation had the best fit to the data, demonstrating synergism caused mainly by diuron and antagonism caused mainly by carbofuran. After fitting the IA model, a synergistic deviation represented the best fit for the diuron and carbofuran mixtures. In general, the two reference models indicated the occurrence of synergism in the mixtures of these compounds, especially when diuron was the dominant chemical in the combinations. The increased toxicity caused by the mixture of these pesticides could pose a greater environmental risk for phytoplankton. Thus, exposure to diuron and carbofuran mixtures must also be considered in risk assessments, since the combination of these compounds may result in more severe effects on algae population growth than single exposures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Adrislaine S Mansano, Raquel A Moreira, Hugo C Dornfeld, Emanuela C Freitas, Eny M Vieira, Hugo Sarmento, Odete Rocha, Mirna H R Seleghim. Effects of diuron and carbofuran and their mixtures on the microalgae Raphidocelis subcapitata. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety. 2017 Aug;142:312-321

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    PMID: 28433596

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