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    Disseminating mouse stocks as frozen materials offers both ethical and logistical advantages over live animal shipment, minimizing the welfare issues and avoiding some of the complex custom regulations that are associated with live animal transportation. Embryo freezing in liquid nitrogen (LN2) at -196 °C has traditionally been the method of choice for archiving mouse lines. However, spermatozoa freezing is emerging as a more convenient alternative due to the application of innovative cryopreservation and recovery protocols. In addition, frozen spermatozoa are less sensitive to post-freezing temperature fluctuations. Here we demonstrated that spermatozoa frozen using standard laboratory protocols can be safely stored in dry ice (-79 °C) for at least seven days. The protocol we report here is robust and has been validated in a multi-centric study involving mouse spermatozoa samples exchanged between five European Mouse Mutant Archive (EMMA) nodes. Furthermore, following shipment on dry ice the spermatozoa can be returned to LN2 for long term storage without any noticeable detrimental effect. This protocol permits frozen spermatozoa to be shared and shipped in dry ice between biorepositories, networks and scientific institutions at low cost, using common courier companies, while avoiding the complexities, risks and hazards associated with using a traditional LN2 dry-shipper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Marcello Raspa, Mo Guan, Renata Paoletti, Lluis Montoliu, Abdel Ayadi, Susan Marschall, EMMA/Infrafrontier Technical Working Group, Martin Fray, Ferdinando Scavizzi. Dry ice is a reliable substrate for the distribution of frozen mouse spermatozoa: A multi-centric study. Theriogenology. 2017 Jul 01;96:49-57

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    PMID: 28532839

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