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    The action of protein kinases and protein phosphatases is essential for multiple physiological responses. Each protein kinase displays its own unique substrate specificity, and a regulatory mechanism that may be modulated by association with other proteins. Protein kinases are classified by the target amino acid in their substrates. Some protein kinases can phosphorylate both serine/threonine, as well as tyrosine residues. This group of kinases has been known as dual specificity kinases. Unlike the dual specificity kinases, a heterogeneous group of protein phosphatases are known as dual-specificity phosphatases. These phosphatases remove phosphate groups from tyrosine and serine/threonine residues on their substrate. Dual-specificity phosphatases are important signal transduction enzymes that regulate various cellular processes in coordination with protein kinases. The protein kinase-phosphoproteins interactions play an important role in obesity . In obesity, the pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of adipokines and cytokines through intracellular signaling pathways mainly involve the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) systems as well as the inhibitor of kappaB-kinase beta (IKK beta). Impairment of insulin signaling in obesity is largely mediated by the activation of the IKKbeta and the JNK. Furthermore, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activate the JNK pathway which suppresses insulin biosynthesis. Additionally, obesity-activated calcium/calmodulin dependent-protein kinase II/p38 suppresses insulin-induced protein kinase B phosphorylation by activating the ER stress effector, activating transcription factor-4. Obese adults with vascular endothelial dysfunction have greater endothelial cells activation of unfolded protein response stress sensors, RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha kinase (PERK) and activating transcription factor-6. The transcriptional regulation of adipogenesis in obesity is influenced by AGC (protein kinase A (PKA), PKG, PKC) family signaling kinases. Obesity may induce systemic oxidative stress and increase reactive oxygen species in adipocytes. Increase in intracellular oxidative stress can promote PKC-beta activation. Activated PKC-beta induces growth factor adapter Shc phosphorylation. Shc-generated peroxides reduce mitochondrial oxygen consumption and enhances triglyceride accumulation. Obesity is fundamentally caused by cellular energy imbalance and dysregulation. Like adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), N-terminal Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) kinase are nutrient responsive protein kinases and important for proper regulation of glucose metabolism in mammals at both the hormonal and cellular level. Defective responses of AMPK to leptin may contribute to resistance to leptin action on food intake and energy expenditure in obese states.


    Atilla Engin. Human Protein Kinases and Obesity. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2017;960:111-134

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    PMID: 28585197

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