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CTAD (citrate-theophylline-adenosine-dipyridamole) has been shown to be an almost universal anticoagulant in human and feline medicine, allowing most hematology, coagulation, and biochemical analyses. Forty canine blood specimens were collected in CTAD, EDTA, heparin, and citrate for hematology, biochemistry, and coagulation analyses. CTAD partially limited platelet aggregation observed in EDTA blood smears. CTAD specimens gave similar and well-correlated results for most variables of a complete blood cell count, except for mean corpuscular volume, which was moderately higher, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, which was moderately lower in CTAD than in EDTA; reticulocyte and platelet indexes were poorly correlated. CTAD plasma gave similar results to citrate for fibrinogen, antithrombin, and D-dimers, and relatively similar results for prothrombin time, but activated partial thromboplastin time was poorly correlated. Triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, total proteins, phosphate, iron, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase, and lipase were similar and well correlated in CTAD and heparin plasmas. Urea, creatinine, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and aspartate aminotransferase showed moderate-to-marked bias, but these variables could be measured in CTAD plasma if new reference intervals were determined. Creatine kinase activity, potassium, chloride, and total carbon dioxide measurements are not recommended in CTAD plasma. CTAD is a prospective candidate as an almost universal anticoagulant for routine hematology, some plasma coagulation, and many biochemistry variables in dogs. Definitive recommendations will require study of abnormal canine blood specimens.


Fanny A Granat, Anne Geffré, Laetitia A Lucarelli, Jean-Pierre D Braun, Catherine Trumel, Nathalie H Bourgès-Abella. Evaluation of CTAD (citrate-theophylline-adenosine-dipyridamole) as a universal anticoagulant in dogs. Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc. 2017 Sep;29(5):676-682

PMID: 28673194

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