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The Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis mosquito larvicidal toxin is not a sulfhydryl-activated toxin. The protein disulfide bonds were cleaved and blocked without loss of toxicity. In contrast, modification of the lysine side chains eliminated toxicity. Additionally, the toxin was resistant to high concentrations of salt (8 M NaBr), organic solvents (40% methanol), denaturants (4 M urea), and neutral detergents (10% Triton X-100). However, it was inactivated by both positively and negatively charged detergents and by guanidine hydrochloride.


M A Pfannenstiel, G A Couche, G Muthukumar, K W Nickerson. Stability of the larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis: amino acid modification and denaturants. Applied and environmental microbiology. 1985 Nov;50(5):1196-9

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PMID: 2868691

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