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    Breast cancer being a multifactorial disease, the role of infectious agent in development of disease is of great interest. The high incidence of breast cancer around the world has woken the interest in a viral etiology of breast cancer. Despite decades of research, no etiologic factor(s) for human breast cancer has been known and the quest for a contributing cause has all but been abandoned during the past years. Recent investigations have linked breast cancer to viral infections, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Human papillomavirus (HPV) and mouse mammary tumor virus. To investigate the possible association of EBV, HPV and MMTV infection with breast cancer development and progression. Screening of isolated genomic DNA from FFPE breast cancer tissue biopsies (n=250) using standard polymerase chain reaction and correlation of virus prevalence with BC disease outcomes using statistical analysis software (SPSS 16.0). Our findings suggest the prevalence of EBV (24.4%), HPV (18.1%) and MMTV (29.3%), while coinfection of HPV and EBV was detected in 9.2% (23/250), co infection of HPV and MMTV in 3.2% (8/250) and coinfection of EBV and MMTV in 6% (15/250) of breast cancer samples. No virus was detected in 59.5% of the breast cancer samples. Mono infection of EBV and HPV do not statistically co-relate with the clinico-pathological outcomes of breast cancer disease, though MMTV infection does co-relate with age and grade of breast cancer disease. In our study, the prevalence of coinfection of HPV, EBV and MMTV in Pakistani breast cancer patients is rare, still there is a possibility of synergistic carcinogenic effect of different viruses in the development of breast cancer disease. The significant percentage of virus prevalence shows potential role in breast cancer development. However, this study provides substantial but not conclusive evidence for the involvement of viruses in BC disease development and progressiveness. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.


    Wasifa Naushad, Orooj Surriya, Hajra Sadia. Prevalence of EBV, HPV and MMTV in Pakistani breast cancer patients: A possible etiological role of viruses in breast cancer. Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases. 2017 Oct;54:230-237

    PMID: 28705719

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