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    The interaction of the human NOTCH1 receptor and its ligands is a crucial step in initiating the intracellular signal transductions, in which O-glycosylation of the extracellular EGF-like domain strongly affects multiple aspects of cell differentiation, development, and cancer biology. However, consequences of biosynthetic O-glycosylation processes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi on the folding of EGF domains remain unclear. Synthetic human NOTCH1 EGF12 modules allow for new insight into the crucial roles of O-glycosylation in the folding and conformation of this pivotal domain. Here, we show for the first time that predominant O-glucosylation at Ser458 facilitates proper folding of the EGF12 domain in the presence of calcium ion, while the nonglycosylated linear EGF12 peptide affords large amounts of misfolded products (>50%) during in vitro oxidative folding. Strikingly, O-fucosylation at Thr466 prior to O-glucosylation at Ser458 totally impedes folding of EGF12 independent of calcium ion, whereas modification of the Fucα1→ moiety with β-linked GlcNAc dramatically enhances folding efficiency. In addition, we elicit that extension of the Glcβ1→ moiety with xyloses is a negative-regulation mechanism in the folding of EGF12 when synthesis of a trisaccharide (Xylα1→3Xylα1→3Glcβ1→) dominates over the posttranslational modification at Thr466. Comprehensive nuclear magnetic resonance studies of correctly folded EGF12 modules demonstrate that noncovalently bonded bridges between sugars and peptide moieties, namely sugar bridges, contribute independently to the stabilization of the antiparallel β-sheet in the ligand-binding region. Our results provide evidence that the dynamic O-glycosylation status of the EGF12 domain elaborated in the ER and Golgi strongly affects folding and trafficking of the human NOTCH1 receptor.


    Shun Hayakawa, Yasuhiro Yokoi, Hiroshi Hinou, Shin-Ichiro Nishimura. Chemical Synthesis Demonstrates That Dynamic O-Glycosylation Regulates the Folding and Functional Conformation of a Pivotal EGF12 Domain of the Human NOTCH1 Receptor. Biochemistry. 2017 Aug 22;56(33):4379-4391

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    PMID: 28745885

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