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    Glyphosate has been used for more than 15 years for weed management in citrus groves in the Gulf of Mexico, at up to 3-4 applications per year. Goosegrass (Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.) control has sometimes failed. In this research, the mechanisms governing three goosegrass biotypes (Ein-Or from an orange grove, and Ein-Pl1 and Ein-Pl2 from Persian lime groves) with suspected resistance to glyphosate were characterized and compared to a susceptible biotype (Ein-S). Dose-response and shikimate accumulation assays confirmed resistance of the resistant (R) biotypes. There were no differences in glyphosate absorption, but the R biotypes retained up to 62-78% of the herbicide in the treated leaf at 96 h after treatment (HAT), in comparison to the Ein-S biotype (36%). The 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity in the Ein-Or and Ein-S biotypes was over 100-fold lower than the Ein-Pl1 and Ein-Pl2 ones. The latter showed a high EPSPS-basal activity, a mutation at Pro-106-Ser position in the EPSPS gene, and EPSPS overexpression. The EPSPS basal and EPSPS overexpression were positively correlated. The R goosegrass biotypes displayed poor glyphosate translocation. Furthermore, this grassweed showed, for the first time, two mechanisms at the target-site level (Pro-106-Ser mutation + EPSPS overexpression) acting together simultaneously against glyphosate.


    Javid Gherekhloo, Pablo T Fernández-Moreno, Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz, Eduardo Sánchez-González, Hugo E Cruz-Hipolito, José A Domínguez-Valenzuela, Rafael De Prado. Pro-106-Ser mutation and EPSPS overexpression acting together simultaneously in glyphosate-resistant goosegrass (Eleusine indica). Scientific reports. 2017 Jul 27;7(1):6702

    PMID: 28751654

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