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    Few quantifiable tissue biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer exist. Using an unbiased, quantitative approach, this study evaluates the potential of three proteins of the 40S ribosomal protein complex as putative biomarkers of malignancy in prostate cancer. Prostate tissue arrays, constructed from 82 patient samples (245 tissue cores, stage pT3a or pT3b), were stained for antibodies against three ribosomal proteins, RPS19, RPS21 and RPS24. Semi-automated Ox-DAB signal quantification using ImageJ software revealed a significant change in expression of RPS19, RPS21 and RPS24 in malignant vs non-malignant tissue (p<0.0001). Receiver operating characteristics curves were calculated to evaluate the potential of each protein as a biomarker of malignancy in prostate cancer. Positive likelihood ratios for RPS19, RPS21 and RPS24 were calculated as 2.99, 4.21, and 2.56 respectively, indicating that the overexpression of the protein is correlated with the presence of disease. Triple-labelled, quantitative, immunofluorescence (with RPS19, RPS21 and RPS24) showed significant changes (p<0.01) in the global intersection coefficient, a measure of how often two fluorophore signals intersect, for RPS19 and RPS24 only. No change was observed in the co-localization of any other permutations of the three proteins. Our results show that RPS19, RPS21 or RPS24 are upregulated in malignant tissue and may serve as putative biomarkers for prostate cancer.


    Callum Arthurs, Bibi Nazia Murtaza, Calum Thomson, Kerry Dickens, Rui Henrique, Hitendra R H Patel, Mariana Beltran, Michael Millar, Christopher Thrasivoulou, Aamir Ahmed. Expression of ribosomal proteins in normal and cancerous human prostate tissue. PloS one. 2017;12(10):e0186047

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    PMID: 29016636

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