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    Electrical stimulation is an important tool in neuroscience research and clinically. In the retina, extensive work has revealed how the retinal ganglion cells respond to extracellular electrical stimulation. But little is known about the responses of other neuronal types, and more generally, how the network responds to stimulation. We conducted a survey of electrically evoked responses, over a range of pulse amplitudes and pulse widths, for 21 cell types spanning the inner two layers of the rabbit retina. It revealed: (i) the evoked responses of some neurons were charge insensitive; (ii) pulse-width sensitivity varied between cell types, allowing preferential recruitment of cell types; and (iii) 10-20 Hz damped oscillations across retinal layers. These oscillations were generated by reciprocal excitatory / inhibitory synapses, at locations as early as the cone-horizontal-cell synapses. These results illustrate at cellular resolution how a network responds to extracellular stimulation, and could inform the development of bioelectronic implants for treating blindness.


    David Tsai, John W Morley, Gregg J Suaning, Nigel H Lovell. Survey of electrically evoked responses in the retina - stimulus preferences and oscillation among neurons. Scientific reports. 2017 Oct 23;7(1):13802

    PMID: 29062068

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