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Turnover of the 26S proteasome by autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that governs cellular proteolytic capacity and eliminates inactive particles. In most organisms, proteasomes are located in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. However, the specific autophagy routes for nuclear and cytoplasmic proteasomes are unclear. Here, we investigate the spatial control of autophagic proteasome turnover in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We found that nitrogen starvation-induced proteasome autophagy is independent of known nucleophagy pathways but is compromised when nuclear protein export is blocked. Furthermore, via pharmacological tethering of proteasomes to chromatin or the plasma membrane, we provide evidence that nuclear proteasomes at least partially disassemble before autophagic turnover, whereas cytoplasmic proteasomes remain largely intact. A targeted screen of autophagy genes identified a requirement for the conserved sorting nexin Snx4 in the autophagic turnover of proteasomes and several other large multisubunit complexes. We demonstrate that Snx4 cooperates with sorting nexins Snx41 and Snx42 to mediate proteasome turnover and is required for the formation of cytoplasmic proteasome puncta that accumulate when autophagosome formation is blocked. Together, our results support distinct mechanistic paths in the turnover of nuclear versus cytoplasmic proteasomes and point to a critical role for Snx4 in cytoplasmic agglomeration of proteasomes en route to autophagic destruction. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Antonia A Nemec, Lauren A Howell, Anna K Peterson, Matthew A Murray, Robert J Tomko. Autophagic clearance of proteasomes in yeast requires the conserved sorting nexin Snx4. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2017 Dec 29;292(52):21466-21480

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PMID: 29109144

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