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Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring is a special type of protein posttranslational modification, by which proteins with diverse function are attached to cell membrane through a covalent linkage between the protein and the glycolipid. Phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class A (PIGA) is a key enzyme in GPI anchor biosynthesis, somatic mutations or genetic variants of which have been associated with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), or PIGA deficiency, respectively. More than 10 PIGA pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants have been reported in a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes of PIGA deficiency, including multiple congenital anomalies hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2 (MCAHS2). Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on two trios, that is., the proband's family and his affected maternal cousin's family, from a nonconsanguineous Chinese family pedigree with hypotonia-encephalopathy-seizures disease history and putative X-linked recessive inheritance. Sanger sequencing for PIGA variant was performed on affected members as well as unaffected members in the family pedigree to verify its familial segregation. A novel likely pathogenic variant in PIGA was identified through comparative WES analysis of the two affected families. The single-nucleotide substitution (NC_000023.9:g.15343279T>C) is located in intron 3 of the PIGA gene and within the splice acceptor consensus sequence (NM_002641.3:c.849-5A>G). Even though we have not performed RNA studies, in silico tools predict that this intronic variant may alter normal splicing, causing a four base pair insertion which creates a frameshift and a premature stop codon at position 297 (NP_002632.1:p.(Arg283Serfs*15)). Sanger sequencing analysis of the extended family members confirmed the presence of the variant and its X-linked inheritance. WES data analysis along with familial segregation of a rare intronic variant are suggestive of a diagnosis of X-liked PIGA deficiency with clinical features of MCAHS2. © 2018 The Authors. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Citation

Junli Yang, Qiong Wang, Qingcui Zhuo, Huiling Tian, Wen Li, Fang Luo, Jinghui Zhang, Dan Bi, Jing Peng, Dong Zhou, Huawei Xin. A likely pathogenic variant putatively affecting splicing of PIGA identified in a multiple congenital anomalies hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2 (MCAHS2) family pedigree via whole-exome sequencing. Molecular genetics & genomic medicine. 2018 Sep;6(5):739-748

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PMID: 29974678

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