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A 12-step route is presented starting from 1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-glucofuranose for the preparation of the title compounds and their L-altro analogues. Their synthesis is based on the reduction with Raney nickel of a protected 5-hydroxyimino derivative of L-arabino-hexofuranos-5-ulose, with the following improvements for the preparation of a D-galactofuranose derivative: oxidation at C-3 with pyridinium dichromate-acetic anhydride, stereospecific reduction of a 3-O-acetyl-hex-3-enofuranose intermediate to the D-gulo derivative, and inversion at C-3 of its 3-tosylate with tetrabutylammonium acetate in chlorobenzene. alpha-D-Galactosidase from coffee beans and from Escherichia coli and beta-D-galactosidase from E. coli and Aspergillus wentii were inhibited with Ki values that ranged from 0.0007 to 8.2 microM. Formation of the enzyme-inhibitor complexes with the D-galactose analogue was on the time-scale of minutes, whereas the D-galactitol analogue showed a slow approach to the inhibition only with alpha-D-galactosidase from coffee beans and beta-D-galactosidase from A. wentii. N-Alkylation of the D-galactitol analogue was detrimental to the inhibition except for beta-D-galactosidase from E. coli and beta-D-glucosidase from almonds, but, even with these enzymes, the observed affinity enhancements were 10(2) to 10(3)-times smaller than those of N-alkylated D-galactosylamine and D-glucosylamine.


G Legler, S Pohl. Synthesis of 5-amino-5-deoxy-D-galactopyranose and 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-galactitol, and their inhibition of alpha- and beta-D-galactosidases. Carbohydrate research. 1986 Nov 1;155:119-29

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PMID: 3024831

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