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    Evidence from electrophysiological, functional, and structural research suggests that abnormal brain connectivity plays an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, most previous studies have focused on single modalities only, each of which is associated with its own limitations. Multimodal combinations can more effectively utilize various information, but previous multimodal research mostly focuses on extracting local features, rather than carrying out research based on network perspective. This study included 135 patients with schizophrenia and 148 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and structural magnetic resonance imaging data were used to construct the functional, anatomical, and morphological networks of each participant, respectively. These networks were used in combination with machine learning to identify more consistent biomarkers of brain connectivity and explore the relationships between different modalities. We found that although each modality had divergent connectivity biomarkers, the convergent pattern was that all were mostly located within the basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex circuit. Furthermore, using the biomarkers of these 3 modalities as a feature yielded the highest classification accuracy (91.75%, relative to a single modality), suggesting that the combination of multiple modalities could be effectively utilized to obtain complementary information regarding different mode networks; furthermore, this information could help distinguish patients. These findings provide direct evidence for the disconnection hypothesis of schizophrenia, suggesting that abnormalities in the basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex circuit can be used as a biomarker of schizophrenia. © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:


    Wei Zhao, Shuixia Guo, Zeqiang Linli, Albert C Yang, Ching-Po Lin, Shih-Jen Tsai. Functional, Anatomical, and Morphological Networks Highlight the Role of Basal Ganglia-Thalamus-Cortex Circuits in Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia bulletin. 2020 Feb 26;46(2):422-431

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    PMID: 31206161

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