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    Integrins are the main cell surface receptors and execute multifaceted functions such as the bidirectional transmission of signals (i.e., inside-out and outside-in) and provide communication between cells and their microenvironments. Integrins are the key regulators of critical biological functions and contribute significantly to the promotion of cancer at almost every stage of disease progression from initial tumor formation to metastasis. Integrin expressions are frequently altered in different cancers, and consequently, several therapeutic strategies targeting integrins have been developed. Furthermore, nanotechnology-based approaches have been devised to overcome the intrinsic limitations of conventional therapies for cancer management, and have been shown to more precise, safer, and highly effective therapeutic tools. Although nanotechnology-based approaches have achieved substantial success for the management of cancer, certain obstacles remain such as inadequate knowledge of nano-bio interactions and the challenges associated with the three stages of clinical trials. This review highlights the different roles of integrins and of integrin-dependent signaling in various cancers and describes the applications of nanotherapeutics targeting integrins. In addition, we discuss RGD-based approaches and challenges posed to cancer management. Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


    Khurshid Ahmad, Eun Ju Lee, Sibhghatulla Shaikh, Anuj Kumar, Kummara Madhusudana Rao, So-Yong Park, Jun O Jin, Sung Soo Han, Inho Choi. Targeting integrins for cancer management using nanotherapeutic approaches: Recent advances and challenges. Seminars in cancer biology. 2021 Feb;69:325-336

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    PMID: 31454671

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