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    To establish systemic infections, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) requires Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) to survive and replicate within macrophages. High expression of many SPI-2 genes during the entire intracellular growth period within macrophages is essential, as it contributes to the formation of Salmonella-containing vacuole and bacterial replication. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying the sustained induction of SPI-2 within macrophages are not fully understood. Here, we revealed a time-dependent regulation of SPI-2 expression mediated by a novel regulator PagR (STM2345) in response to the low Mg2+ and low phosphate (Pi ) signals, which ensured the high induction of SPI-2 during the entire intramacrophage growth period. Deletion of pagR results in reduced bacterial replication in macrophages and attenuation of systemic virulence in mice. The effects of pagR on virulence are dependent on upregulating the expression of slyA, a regulator of SPI-2. At the early (0-4 hr) and later (after 4 hr) stage post-infection of macrophages, pagR is induced by the low Pi via PhoB/R two-component systems and low Mg2+ via PhoP/Q systems, respectively. Collectively, our findings revealed that the PagR-mediated regulatory mechanism contributes to the precise and sustained activation of SPI-2 genes within macrophages, which is essential for S. Typhimurium systemic virulence. © 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Lingyan Jiang, Peisheng Wang, Xiaomin Li, Runxia Lv, Lin Wang, Bin Yang, Di Huang, Lu Feng, Bin Liu. PagR mediates the precise regulation of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 gene expression in response to magnesium and phosphate signals in Salmonella Typhimurium. Cellular microbiology. 2020 Feb;22(2):e13125

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    PMID: 31610610

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