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    The purpose of this review is to briefly outline current scientific evidence on the potential role of tear analysis and ocular surface evaluation in diagnosis and monitoring of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and glaucoma. A systematic computerized search in the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Collaborations was conducted to find eligible articles which their main topic was to investigate the tear and ocular surface in neurodegenerative diseases. After a first screening of titles and abstracts and a full-text review, 26 articles met the inclusion criteria (1 about the neurodegenerative diseases, 3 about the Alzheimer disease, 11 about the Parkinson disease, 11 about glaucoma, and 1 about amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). The ocular surface picture seems to be altered in the setting of neurodegenerative diseases with specific characteristics according to each disease. They seem to be associated with reduced corneal sensitivity and abnormal tear function, and each one presents the expression of specific biomarkers in tears. The study of tears and ocular surface appears to be a new and noninvasive promising way to assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of neurodegenerative diseases.


    Matilde Roda, Carmen Ciavarella, Giuseppe Giannaccare, Piera Versura. Biomarkers in Tears and Ocular Surface: A Window for Neurodegenerative Diseases. Eye & contact lens. 2020 Mar;46 Suppl 2:S129-S134

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    PMID: 31658175

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