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    Resin glycosides are well known as the purgative ingredients, which are characteristic of convolvulaceous plants. Calystegia hederacea Wall. is a perennial herbaceous vine that is widespread throughout India and East Asia. All parts of this plant are used for the treatment of menoxenia, gonorrhea, etc. Alkaline hydrolysis of the crude resin glycoside fraction of the whole plants of C. hederacea yielded four new glycosidic acids, calyhedic acids A, B, C, and D, along with two known glycosidic acids, calysolic acids A and C, and three known organic acids, 2S-methylbutyric, tiglic, and 2R,3R-nilic acids. Their structures were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. Calyhedic acids A, B, and D were penta-, hexa-, and hepta-glycosides of 12S-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid, respectively, and cayhedic acid C was an isomer of calyhedic acid D, in which the 12S-hydroxyhexadecanoyl residue of calyhedic acid D was replaced by a 11S-hydroxyhexadecanoyl residue. Additionally, cytotoxic activity toward HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells of the crude resin glycoside fraction, the glycosidic acid fraction, calyhedic acid A, and calysolic acid A from C. hederacea was evaluated. Furthermore, to clarify the structure-activity relationship of resin glycosides, the activities of six genuine resin glycosides with calysolic acid A or calysolic acid C as the glycosidic acid, which were isolated from C. soldanella, were examined. Among them, the crude resin glycoside fraction and five genuine resin glycosides with macrolactone structures demonstrated clear cytotoxic activities, while the glycosidic acid fraction, calyhedric acid A, calysolic acid A, and a genuine non-macrolactone-type resin glycoside were either inactive or exhibited weaker activity than the tested macrolactone-type resin glycosides.


    Masateru Ono, Yoshino Ichihara, Nao Saito, Minami Yamada, Kana Yuuki, Masami Nawata, Shuhei Tsutsumi, Shin Yasuda, Ryota Tsuchihashi, Masafumi Okawa, Junei Kinjo, Hiroyuki Miyashita, Hitoshi Yoshimitsu, Toshihiro Nohara. Identification and characterization of organic and glycosidic acids in crude resin glycoside fraction from Calystegia hederacea. Journal of natural medicines. 2020 Jan;74(1):200-211

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    PMID: 31691185

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